This book brings together the state of our knowledge on the interactions between climate change and marine biota. It focusses broadly on the environmental stressors during the Anthropocene period; when human activities started to have a significant global impact on earth’s geological imprint and ecosystems. This period of rapid change is accompanied by rising carbon dioxide levels, increasing global temperatures, loss of oxygen in aquatic systems, and the fast release of pollutants into the environment among many other environmental stressors originating from large scale human activities, such as widespread overfishing.The Future of Marine Life in a Changing Ocean starts by providing the reader with a brief background on fundamental concepts in ocean science and climate. It then moves on to a brief description of recent changes in marine chemistry such as ocean acidification, a decline in oxygen levels in the oceans, ocean warming, and marine pollution, with some examples of shifts in ecosystem diversity. The chapters discuss these topics in the context of how a changing ocean impacts ecosystem health, the biological carbon pump, the sequestration of carbon dioxide from the surface ocean into the deep sea, and the perceived notion of the ocean’s unlimited resilience to maintain its role as a ‘carbon reservoir’. Topics include threats to marine diversity, ecosystem function, latitudinal shifts in productivity and diversity, and changes in global cycling of elements such as carbon. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of climate change on food security.Written for undergraduate and graduate students, and researchers in the natural and social sciences, this book provides a science background to study environmental change in marine ecosystems as well as a science framework to study policy, marine law and the economics of climate change. This book is an essential read for anyone hoping to understand key challenges facing our oceans.